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CFD simulations in Urban Environment

The BAM 5 and 6 LH2 dispersion experiments in the presence of buildings Invalid BibTex Entry! were simulated by (StatharasJC:2000) using the ADREA-HF code. The source was modelled using a series of two phase flow jets. Liquid phase evaporation during the dispersion was taken nto account using the homegeneous equilibrium model. The calculations were performed using a one-equation turbulence model. Reasonable agreement with measured concentrations was reported when ground heating was taken into account.

The Battelle k- model BASSIM originally designed for hydrogen combustion in nuclear containments has been applied to predicting the BAM LH2 release trials in 1994, providing reasonable qualitative results for 3D effects of hydrogen dispersion behavior (RastogiAK:1994).

The 1983 Stockholm (Sweden) hydrogen accident was simulated by Venetsanos et al. (VenetsanosAG:2003) using the ADREA-HF code for dispersion and the REACFLOW code for the combustion. An intergal tool was applied to simulate the release of 4kg of hydrogen from a network of 18 interconnected cylinders of 15 l volume each containing hydrogen at 200 bar. Figure 1 shows the predicted lower flammability (4%) hydrogen-air cloud at 10 seconds after start of release.

Fig. 1: Simulation of the 1983 Stockholm hydrogen accident (VenetsanosAG:2003), Left: Modelled site and lorry carrying 4 kg of hydrogen in 18x50 l, 200 bar bottles (red circle), Right: Predicted lower flammability hydrogen-air cloud at 10 seconds after start of release

Simulations of hydrogen releases from CGH2 commercial vehicles (busses) in urban environment were reported by (VenetsanosAG:2008). The work was performed during the EIHP2 project (EIHP:url), using the ADREA-HF code for dispersion and the REACFLOW code for combustion. Three different storage pressures were considered for the CGH2 releases 200, 350 and 700 bar. Compartive simulations were performed for a 200bar CNG bus.

References

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